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at:  http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1389224X.2012.718247

Saravanan, R, (2012) e-Agriculture Prototype for Knowledge Facilitation among Tribal Farmers of North-East India: Innovations, Impact and Lessons. Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension. Vol.19 (2).Pp:113-131

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Home E agriculture Crop Information Preparation of Vermicompost and Vermiwash
 
Preparation of Vermicompost and Vermiwash
 
 
Soyimchiten
Lenmem Dai
Arwankie Shadap
Maruati Hmar
Y. Somi Singh
Anjana


Rural Horticultural Work Experience Programme

Final Year B.Sc (Horticulture) Students (2004-08
 
 

College of Horticulture and Forestry
Central Agricultural University
Pasighat-791102
Arunachal Pradesh
 
Preparation of Vermicompost and Vermiwash

In organic farming Vermicompost and Vermmiwash become essential in order to back it up.

Vermitechnology: ltis a method of converting organic wastes into useful products through the action of earthworm comprising three main component processes, such as (i) Vermiculture (ii) Vermicomposting (iii) Vermi preservation
Pit size: Length -  According to convenient
Breadth – 1m to 1.25m
Height  -   0.75m to 0.90m
Floor of the pit must be plastered, otherwise worms may go out. Depending on the situation a canal around the outside walls of pit should be made (if there is more insect population).

Vermicomposting: It can be defined as a process of converting organic waste into vermicompost through the activities of earthworm. It is the advanced method of composting where earthworms eat the decomposed material and excrete it out as casting which is known as vermicast or vermicompost. During feeding, earthworrns use 5-10% of the food intake for their growth and the rest  is excreted.

Preliminary treatments of organic waste:
Plastic, stones, wood piece etc. non-decomposable material should be separated first and then the waste, if possible, is spread on the ground to expose into sunlight for two days. This will help to reduce insect population.

Requirements for vermicomposting:
1. Container I Pit:  Container of any shape or size can be used. The container mav be made of plastic earthen or concrete that depends on the cboice of the person who want to do composting.

2. Bedding material: Pre-decomposted organic waste mixed with 80% organic waste and 20% cowdung.

3. Moisture content: Moisture content during composting should be maintain at 30-40%.

4. Temperature:  Optimum temperature for food material is 20-300C.

5. Cover of feed substrate:  Cover on feed material by using gunny bags or black plastic sheets helps to reduce water loss, unwanted movement of worms and more feeding by worms as they do not prefer light.
6. Selection of right type of worms: The most important worms are as follows;
    Exotic worms- a) Eisenia foetida- Red worm, tiger worm
                            b) Eudrillus euginae- Night crawler
    Local worms- a) Perionyx excavates
                           b) Perionyx sansbaricus
7.  Sieve: 3-4mm
8.  Packaging bags made of H.D.P.E (for big packaging) or plastic(small packaging) are used.
9.  Bucket and watering cans
10.  Hoe and Fork…etc.

VERMICOMPOST PRODUCTION PROCESS

1.  Pre-decomposition organic waste:
Preliminary treated organic waste materials has to be pre-decomposed in a pit size dug in soil in a length 2m, breadth 1-1.5m and height 0.9m-1m. First put one layer of organic waste and then one layer of cowdung, maintaining the ratio of 80% waste and 20% cowdung. Repeat the layering process and then cover the pit with thin layer of cowdung. Leave it for 20-30 days depending on the climatic conditions. When the material are partially decomposed transfer these materials to vermi pits by cutting vertically, not layer wise from top. It will help homogeneous mixing of material in the pits.

2. Preparation of vermin pits: Before placing the partially decomposed material in the pit, put one layer of thach/ straw (say 2inches thickness). And then put pre-decomposed organic waste. Keep about 10 cm from the top of the pit unfilled. Remove non-decomposed like plastic, big branches, etc. from the pit and make the material leveled.

3. Inoculation of worms: Depending on the condition of the material, we can inoculate worms after 5-10 days. 2000-3000 no worm per sq meter feeding material is sufficient but more than this no. can also be used. Regular watering is  must to keep the food material moist.

4. Harvesting of Vermicast/ compost: Earth worm starts feeding from upper surface of the feed material. When the material becomes granular, blackish in colour, just like used tea, it indicates that the material is ready for harvesting. Scrapped this material upto the depth where there is no vermicompost worms. Collect all scrapped material and make one heap and leave it for 2-3 days. All worms will go down to the bottom of the heap and it will be easier to separate the worms manually.

5. Drying and Sieving: Vermi-compost should be dried in shade, as sunkight will destroy the cocoons. There should be 20-25% moisture, in this time. For this measurement, make a small ball of vermin-compost and if it immediately cracks down it indicates 20-25% moisture. Then sieve it by using 3-4mm sieve. Sieved material is the vermin-compost ready to be used. Material on the sieve can be put in to the composition pit or it can be used around plants.

6. Packaging:  Sieved material is ready for packaging. So, depending on the choice it can be packed in 1Kg, 2Kg, 3Kg, Polybag or if higher amounts used H.D.P.E bags. Closed the opening of the bag tightly as it may absorb moisture from the atmosphere.

Maintainance of Vermi Beds
  1. After inoculation of worms in the pit, regular watering is a must to keep the feeding moist. Depending upon the weather conditions 1-2 times watering is necessary.
  2. During summer months covering of the vermi beds with gunny bags is essential, as it will check moisture loss from the beds and restrict upward movements of worms.
  3. After harvesting of vermin-compost, if the feeding material is compact, loosen it by using one bamboo stick.
  4. Periodical removal of cast also increases the feeding efficiency of worms.
  5. Almost all the worms will get accumulated in the last layer of feed material. So, place the worm with organic waste into another pits which is ready to be inoculated with worms. So, minimum 2 pits will help to recycle the worms.
Advantages of Vermicompost application
  1. Improves soil physical structure
  2. Helps multiplication of microbes and maintain normal soil pH
  3. As particle size is very small, so plants can absorb very easily
  4. Contains almost all essential nutrients and hormones for plants growth
  5. Improves water holding capacity of soil
  6. Due to healthy plant growth,plant can resist insect attack.
  7. Products have good taste, odour and nutritive value.
Mode of application
For field crops and vegetables, vermi-compost is applied at the time of final land preparation using broadcasting method. For horticultural crops base application is the best. For flower tabs and flwer beds, mix vermin-compost with soil and then do the sowing or planting.

Advantages of Vermicompost application
  1. Improves soil physical structure
  2. Helps multiplication of microbes and maintain normal soil pH
  3. As particle size is very small, so plants can absorb very easily
  4. Contains almost all essential nutrients and hormones for plants growth
  5. Improves water holding capacity of soil
  6. Due to healthy plant growth,plant can resist insect attack.
  7. Products have good taste, odour and nutritive value.

Mode of application

For field crops and vegetables, vermi-compost is applied at the time of final land preparation using broadcasting method. For horticultural crops base application is the best. For flower tabs and flwer beds, mix vermin-compost with soil and then do the sowing or planting.

Crop                    Rate of Apllication

Arecanut                2Kg/plant in split doses
Lemon                    3Kg/ plant  …do…..
Tea                        1MT/Acre for young plantations
                               2MT/Acre for matured plantations
Pineapple               350Kg/Bigha
Banana                  335Kg/Bigha
Paddy                    100-150Kg/Bigha
Chillies                   135Kg/Bigha
Potato                   150Kg/Bigha
Other vegs            300-350Kg/Bigha


VERMI-WASH
It is a liquid manure obtained from earthworms and is used as a foliar spray. It contain plant growth hormones like auxins and cytokinins apart from nitrogen, phosphorus potash and other micro-nutrients.

Methods of preparation

  1. Select one sufficiently large container made of concrete or plastic bucket or earthen pot.
  2. Drill a hole at the base of the container to fix a tab to it.
  3. A base layer of gravel or broken small pieces of bricks are place to a height of 10-15 cm.
  4. Above the gravel layer another layer of coarse sand of 1-15 cm is put.
  5. On the coarse sand layer place 40-45 cm pre-decomposed organic wastes and moistens the different layer by using water.
  6. Introduce about 2000 Nos of earthworms into the container.
  7. To get vermiwash continuously suspend a mud pot or a small bucket with some holes. Cotton wicks/or bamboo sticks are place in the holes so that water can trickle down.
  8. Fill the container with 4-5 lits water everyday.
  9. After 10 days vermiwash starts forming in the container.
  10. Everyday about 3-4 lits of vermiwash can be collected.
APPLICATIONS
  1. Dilute 1 lits of vermiwash with 4-5 lits of water and spray as foliar spray during the late evening hours.
  2. A mixture of vermiwash (1 lit ) with cow urine (1 lit) in 10 lits of water acts as bio-pesticide and liquid manure.
BENEFITS
It acts as a plant tonic and help to reduce many plant diseases.
 
 For More Details
 
 

e-Arik (e-Agriculture)
ICTs for Agricultural Extension
Village Knowledge Centre
Yagrung Village
Pasighat, East Siang District
Arunachal Pradesh
Phone No.:2282323
www.earik.in

 

Acknowledgement: This publication is prepared with the support from the Technology Information Facilitation Programme (TIFP), Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR), Grant No.: DSIR/TIF086/2007; Dated March, 2007.