Newsflash

NEW RESEARCH ARTICLE

at:  http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1389224X.2012.718247

Saravanan, R, (2012) e-Agriculture Prototype for Knowledge Facilitation among Tribal Farmers of North-East India: Innovations, Impact and Lessons. Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension. Vol.19 (2).Pp:113-131

Visitors Counter
mod_vvisit_countermod_vvisit_countermod_vvisit_countermod_vvisit_countermod_vvisit_countermod_vvisit_countermod_vvisit_counter

Today is: 2014-04-20
Weather Report
Home E agriculture Crop Information Composite Fish Culture

 

                               COMPOSITE FISH CULTURE

 S. M. Hussain

 

 KRISHI VIGYAN KENDRA
College of Horticulture and Forestry
Central Agricultural University
East Siang District, Pasighat
Arunachal Pradesh

 

Aquaculture has acquired a special significance not only because of its contribution to food resources but also for contribution to quality of our diet. India is getting good amount of foreign exchange by exporting the aqua products by adopting the scientific management techniques. Aquaculture is a fast growing subject in Andhra Pradesh, where adequate water facilities, infrastructure facilities and entrepreneurship are abundantly available. This has resulted in the production of large quantities of fresh water carps, scampi and brackish water shrimps.

There is a large cultivable area of stagnant fresh water in Arunachal Pradesh in the form of ponds, tanks and beels etc., of which only small part is utilized for fish culture. Though the farmers are doing fish culture but still the technology of aquaculture has not been well established among them. For which the farmers are not able to harvest desired yield. There are many fish culture technologies available and among them composite carp farming system is the most suitable one for this region. In this system different compatible species of Indian and Exotic carps of different feeding habits are stocked and cultured in the same pond so that all its ecological niches are utilized by the fishes.

Management systems adopted in composite fish culture can be divided into;

  1. Pre-stocking management.
  2. Stocking management.
  3. Post-stocking management.
  4. PRE-STOCKING MANAGEMENT

 

In Aquaculture prevention is always better than cure; therefore proper management starting from the pond preparation is very essential. The major steps in pre-stocking management are viz. aquatic weed clearance, eradication of predatory and weed fish, manuring and liming.


a.    Aquatic weed clearance

Mainly there are two methods for clearance and control of aquatic weed viz. chemical method and mechanical or manual method. The mechanical or manual method is preferable due to no side effect. Aquatic weed create obstruction in the free fish movement and competes for nutrient with the phytoplankton as well as provides shelter to fish enemies particularly insects there for removal and control is very essential.

b.    Eradication of unwanted fishes

 

 

Eradication of unwanted fishes can be done by manual methods like i. Repeated netting and ii. Complete dewatering and drying; or by chemical methods like            
 i. Application of bleaching powder (25-30 ppm)

ii. Application of Mohua oil cake (250 ppm). The mohua oil cake is a popular fish poison of plant origin and it serves as manure at later stage. After applying chemicals it is advisable to do netting for removal of dead fishes from the pond. 

c.    Liming of pond
Application of lime is done not for fertilizing the pond but as a remedial measure necessary in acidic pond. Lime application has many benefits viz.
i.    Neutralize acidity.
ii.   Increasing pH of bottom soil and thereby enhancing the availability of phosphorus added in fertilizer.
iii.  Accelerating the microbial activity and thereby diminishing the accumulation of organic matter in pond bottoms and favouring recycling of nutrients.
iv.    Maintaining the alkalinity and other physic-chemical characteristics of soil, which in turn helps in enhancing fish/shrimp production.
v.    Improving the hygiene of pond bottom.
There are different types of lime, commonly used are agricultural limestone (CaCO3), quick lime or unslaked lime (CaO), and hydrated or slaked lime [Ca (OH)2 ]. The requirement of lime depends on the soil pH and soil type as well as quality of lime.

 

 Table: Liming schedule base on soil pH status

pH range Quantity per ha
Agricultural lime Quick lime
6.5-7.5 720 400
6.0-6.5 1800 1000
5.0-6.0 2150 1200
4.0-5.0 3580 2000
1/3 quantity of total amount should apply as 1st dose and rest should apply in 11 split dose

 

d.    Fertilization
Fertilization or manuring of pond is done to boost up the natural fish food production in the pond. Fertilizers are broadly two types organic and inorganic. Organic fertilizers are of plant or animal origin and inorganic fertilizers are of mineral origin. The best result of fertilizer obtains when the pH of the soil and water of the pond is neutral or slightly alkaline as well as in the absence of aquatic weed of the pond. Fertilizer should not be applied in the presence of any aquatic weed. Fertilization should be done after 7 days of liming. The most common fertilizers applied in the pond bottom are Urea, Single Super Phosphate (SSP) and Raw Cow Dung (RCD). The quantity of fertilizer to be applied depends on the soil fertility.

 Table: Fertilization schedule based on soil fertility status

Nutrient Low Productive Medium Productive High Productive
Organic carbon (%) 0.5-1.5 1.5-2.5 > 2.5
Available nitrogen (mg/100 g soil) 25-50 50-75 > 75
Available phosphorus (mg/100 g soil) < 3 3-6 > 6
Recommended schedule of fertilization application
Raw cowdung (tonnes/ha/yr) 20 15 10
Nitrogen (kg/ha/yr)

150 N

(322 urea)

100 N

   (218 urea)

50 N

(104 urea)
Phosphorus (kg/ha/yr)

75 P

(470 SSP)

50 P

(310 SSP)

25 P

  (235 SSP)

1/5 part of the total quantity of cow dung should be applied as first dose; rest should be applied in monthly interval. In case of Urea and SSP it should be applied after 7 days of cow dung application in 11 equal installments. Stocking of seed should be done after 7-10 days of all fertilization.
Table: General fertilization schedule for composite culture

Fertilizer Qty(kg/ha/month) Remarks
Cowdung 2000 Initial
Cowdung 1000 Monthly
Urea 25 Monthly
SSP 20 Monthly
  • STOCKING MANAGEMENT:
The suitable fish species cultured in this system are Chinese carps viz. a) Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodonidella) b) Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) c) Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and indigenous fish like a) Rohu (Labeo rohita) b) Catla (Catla catla) and c) Mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala).

i.Species combination

Species combination and proportion in North Eastern Region depends on the altitudinal variations and agro-climatic conditions of the region. Moreover, due attention should be given to the biological production in the pond and the availability of aquatic/terrestrial weed for grass carps. In composite fish culture pond, fingerlings (100-150 mm) should be stocked in the following ratio according to the altitudinal variation

  1. In lower altitudes (upto 2500 feet msl) with warm temperature:2 Catla: 2 Rohu: 1.5 Mrigal: 2 Silver carp: 1 Grass carp: 1.5 Common carp.
  2. In medium altitude (upto 3500 feet msl): 2 Catla :1 Rohu :1 Mrigal : 3 Silver carp : 1 Grass carp: 2 Common carp.
  3. In higher altitudes (above 3500 feet and below 4500 feet msl) : 4 Silver carp: 2.5 Grass carp :3.5 Common carp.

(Source of Technology: Technical Bull.No. 20, 2006; ICAR-RCNEH, Barapani, Meghalaya)

ii.Stocking density

A moderate density of 7500 fingerlings/ha is recommended but density of 6000 fingerlings/ha is also justified when the rearing period is limited to about 8-10 month.


Table: Feeding habit of the species cultured  

 

Sl. No. Species Feeding habit Pictures
1. Catla Filter feeder. Primarily feeds upon zoo plankton. Habitat- surface.  
2 Rohu Filter feeder. Primarily consumes plant, vegetables debris, and detritus. Habitat-column  
3 Mrigal Forage on benthic materials, Omnivorous, Consumes decayed plant and animal matters, algae, detritus. Habitat-bottom  
4. Silver carp Filter feeder. Primarily feeds upon phytoplankton. Habitat- surface.  
5 Grass carp Grazer, Primarily consumes coarse vegetables. Habitat- column and surface.  
6 Common carp Consumes benthic materials. Omnivorous. Habitat- Bottom  

TRANSPORTATION AND STOCKING

Transportation of seed is one of the most important steps involved in the Pisciculture because improper transportation may lead to 100% mortality of the seed during travelling as well as after release of the seed. Conditioning of the seed is must before transpiration. Conditioning means keeping the seed in a hapa for few hour before packing or transportation so that the stomach of the fishes becomes empty.
There are many methods of transportation viz. open transportation (in hundy), closed transportation in plastic bags.

Problems faced during transportation:
  1. Dissolve oxygen level in transporting water reduces and Carbon di oxide level increases.
  2. Due to metabolic activity of fishes the concentration of ammonia, urea and uric acid etc increase in the water, hence fish gets stress.
  3. If transportation is done in high density it may lead to mortality of fish due stress of oxygen.
  4. If transportation is done in improper vessels physical damage of fishes may occurred.
Some important tips for transportation of fish 
  1. Transportation early in the morning is better.
  2. The water used in transportation should be cool and clean.
  3. Quantity of fishes per transportation unit should be maintained, over quantity may lead to death of fishes.
  4. Oxygen packing is the best method of transportation.

Care should be taken so that no direct sunlight falls in the packing bags during transportation

Release of seed

After received the seed in the farm the seeds should be acclimatize with the farm water so that the seeds does not get sudden sock of water parameter fluctuation.
Steps involved in the acclimatization process

  1. Keeping the bag in the pond water without opening for 20 to 30 min to bring the water temperature of the packing bag up to the water temperature level of the pond.
  2. After adjustment of temperature bags should be open and pond water should be poured slowly in the bags and then seeds should be released in the pond.
  3. Mortality of the seeds should be observed before releasing them.
  4. In the next morning from the day of stocking observation should be done from all four dykes of the pond about further mortality. The dead fishes will float in the pond water surface and it should be removed from the pond.

POST-STOCKING MANAGEMENT

Feeding of Fishes;

Feeding is the key factor for the growth of fishes. Proper feeding with balance diet leads to better growth and survival of the organism. Supplementary feeding of oil cake and bran with a mixing ratio of 1:1 results in better production of fishes. Oil cake like Mustard, Groundnut, Til, Coconut and bran like rice or wheat can be used for feeding. The schedule of feeding is given below; how ever the quantity can be adjust according to the consumption observed daily. Initially once in a day and in the later stage twice daily (splitting the total ration in to two times) is advisable for better utilization of feed by the fishes. Oil cake and bran should be mixed together with some water to make dough and then should be placed for feeding. It is always better if feed is placed with tray made of bamboo or any other materials. For one bigha pond 5 trays placed for feeding in different location is sufficient. Grass carp feeds
 

Feeding Schedule( 700 nos to 1000 nos fishes stocked in 1 Bigha)

Week

Daily feed in gm

Week

Daily feed in gm

Week

Daily feed in gm

Week

Daily feed in gm

1st

200

13th

800

25th

2000

37th

3000

2nd

200

14th

900

26th

2100

38th

3000

3rd

300

15th

1000

27th

2200

39th

3200

4th

400

16th

1000

28th

2400

40th

3300

5th

400

17th

1200

29th

2600

41st

3300

6th

500

18th

1300

30th

2800

42nd

3300

7th

600

19th

1400

31st

2800

43rd

3300

8th

700

20th

1500

32nd

2800

44th

3300

9th

700

21st

1700

33rd

2900

45th

3500

10th

800

22nd

1800

34th

3000

46th

3500

11th

800

23rd

1800

35th

3000

47th

3500

12th

800

24th

2000

36th

3000

48th

3500

voraciously on vegetation like wolffia, lemna, azola, spirodella, napier, barsem and banana leaf etc. The grass carp can eat even almost equal to their body weight hence it is advisable to feed them with vegetations at least one hour before placing of supplementary feed to the other fishes.

 
FERTILIZATION and Liming

Time to time fertilization and liming is necessary for maintaining the water quality of the pond. Fertilization can be done by both organic and inorganic fertilizer. Row cow dung @ 1000 kg/ha/month can be applied near the duke of the pond, the total quantity should be divided in to 10-16 parts and dump in the pond dyke so that the manure goes to the pond water with surface runoff. Organic fertilizer like urea can be applied @ 25 kg/ha/month and SSP @ 20 kg/ha/month. Inorganic manure are normally applied after 15 days of application of organic manure. During application of inorganic manures, silt/mud (4 times of the total weight of inorganic manures) should be mixed with the manure to make small ball and then thrown into the pond. Inorganic manure should not be thrown directly into the pond.
It is always better to apply the organic or inorganic manure in split doses. Daily application of organic manure and weekly application of inorganic fertilizer is advisable hence it facilitates better utilization and thus checks the development of algal blooms. Fertilizer should not applied in cloudy weather or when algal blooms appear. In the winter month doses of fertilizer should be reduce or completely stop.
Liming should be done once in a month @ 25kg/ha to correct the water pH. It is always advisable to check the water pH before application of lime.

SAMPLING for GROWTH and HEALTH OBSERVATION

Sampling for checking the health and growth should be done at least once in two months. During sampling if any severe diseased fish is observed then it should not be released in the pond again.

For more details
 

S. M. Hussain
Subject Matter Specialist (Fisheries)
Krishi Vigyan Kendra
College of Horticulture & Forestry
Central Agricultural University
Pasighat, East Siang District
Ph. No: +919862911746

e-Arik (e-Agriculture)  
ICTs for Agricultural Extension
Village Knowledge Centre
Yagrung Village
Pasighat, East Siang District
Phone No.:2282323

 

Acknowledgement: This publication is prepared with the support from the Technology Information Facilitation Programme (TIFP), Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR), Grant No.: DSIR/TIF086/2007; Dated March, 2007.